Operators

Operators are a symbol that operates on a value or variable,

for example, let’s have a look at this expression 3 + 2 is equal to 5, here + is an operator that operates on 3 and 2, So + is an operator to perform addition

and 3, 2 are called as operands.C Language supports the following type of operators.

  • Arithmetic operators
  • Logical (&) Relational operators
  • Bitwise operators
  • Assignment operators
  • Special operators
  • Conditional operator

Arithmetic Operators:

C Programming Language supports following arithmetic operators

Operators Description
+ Performs addition or unary plus
Subtraction or unary minus
* Multiplication
/ Division (quotient after division)
% Modulo Division (Remainder After Division)
++ increments operands by 1 (Increment operator)
Decrements operands  by 1 (Decrement Operator)

Let’s see a sample program

#include int main()
{
int a=3,b=4,c;

     c=a+b;                        /******** + operator******** adds a and b /

     printf("a+b=%d\n",c);

     c=a-b;                         /******** - operator ******** subtracts a and b/

     printf("a-b=%d\n",c);

     c=a*b;                         /////////////// * operator ////////////// multiplies a and b/

     printf("a*b=%d\n",c);

     c=a/b;                         /******* / operator******** Divides a and b/

     printf("a/b=%d\n",c);

    c=a%b;                        /******* % operator ****** gives remainder after division/

   printf("Remainder when a divided by b=%d\n",c); 

    a++;                        /******** ++ operator ****** increments a by 1/

    printf("after increment a value=%d\n",a);

     b--;                         /******** -- operator ******** Decrements by 1/

    printf("after increment b value=%d\n",b);

   return 0;

}

 Output

a+b=7
a-b=-1
a*b=12
a/b=0
Remainder when a divided by b=3
after increment a value = 4
after decrement b value = 3

there is a usage difference between increment (++) operator and  (–) Decrement operator and these operators can be used as prefix or postfix, like below
let a is variable
a++;
++a;
a–;
–a;
When ++ is used as a refix, ++a will increment the value of a by 1 and then return it, if ++ is used as postfix(a++), operator will return the value of operand first and then increment it.

Logical (&) Relational operators:

Relational operators always checks relationship between two operands, it always gives binary result like 1 or 0 always,

example : a > b , where >  is relational operator , if a is greater than b , it gives 1 else 0.

Logical operators are used to combine expressions containing relation operators.

example : (a > b) && (a > c),where && is Logical operator.

C supports following Relational and logical operators

Operator Meaning Example
>  greater than  1 > 2 return false
< Less than  1 < 2 return true
>= Greater than or equal to  1>= 2 return false
<= Less than or equal to  1 <= 2 return false
== equal to  2 == 2 return true
!= not equal to  1 != 2 return true
&& Logical And  if a=2 b = 1 (a > b) &&(a< 10) return true
both expression a > b and a < 10 should be true,
|| Logical Or if a=2 b = 1 (a > b)  || (a> 10) return true.
either expression should be true,Since  a>b is true
above expression gives result true.
! Logical not if a =10 , !(a==10) return false.

Conditional operator:

Conditional operator consists two symbol ? and :  and it takes three operands

example: Let a = 10;

c = (a>5) ? 15 : 5

if a is greater than 5, it results 15  else 5, in our example a = 10, c = 15.

Bitwise Operator:

Bitwise operator works in bit level programming, it works on each bit.

Operators Meaning
& Bitwise AND
! Bitwise OR
~ Complement
^ Exclusive OR
<< Left shift
>> Right Shift

Special Characters:

Comma operator:

Comma operators are used to link related expressions together, example int a, b;

The size of Operator:

It is a unary operator which is used finding the size of a data type, constant, arrays, structure etc.

For example:

sizeof(int) gives size of an integer data type as 4 bytes.

Assignment Operator:

Assignment operators have two values L value and R value, it is used to assign the value to variable,most common assignment operator is =

example:

a = 10     10 is assigned to a

a = b    value of b assigned to a

Operator Example Meaning
+ a=b a=b
+= a+=b a= a+b
*= a*=b a=a*b
-= a-=b a=a-b
/= a/=b a=a/b

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